Special Topics Episode 7.5 – Response to “Rippetoe Goes Off”

Is solely relying on heavy barbell training the best way to achieve hypertrophic, strength, and performance adaptations? Is there room for any other methods? Does proper squatting and deadlifting cover all possible bases for rehabilitative, functional, and athletic purposes? Are machines and isolation movements for sissies? And are physical therapists all a bunch of “weenie frauds?”

kirk-karwoski-squat

In episode 7.5 of The Strength of Evidence Podcast, Jon and Bret respond to Mark Rippetoe’s latest TNation article and demonstrate how to properly analyze polarizing, black & white articles.

Click Here to Download or Just to Listen

Click Here to Download on iTunes

What do you think? After listening to the podcast and weighing the evidence, should we all solely perform heavy barbell movements and refrain from all other training methodology? Join us in the discussion by giving us a “like” on our Facebook page!

As always, if you like the podcast, please click on THIS LINK, go to iTunes, click on “ratings and reviews,” and leave us some feedback and a rating! Then share with your friends and anyone that might like to hear the debate.

Yates Row

Links to the Articles and Topics Discussed in the Podcast

Rippetoe Goes Off

Overall principle of lower limb support during stance phase of gait (Full PDF HERE)

Variations in force-time histories of cat gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris muscles for consecutive walking steps (Full PDF HERE)

The Randall Lift (Bruce Randall & Good Mornings)

The Strength of Evidence Podcast – Episode 2: To Squat or Not to Squat

Do the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus medialis longus really exist? A systematic review

The effects of short-term unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training on measures of strength and power

Comparison of lower extremity EMG between the 2-leg squat and modified single-leg squat in female athletes

Effects of unilateral and bilateral lower-body heavy resistance exercise on muscle activity and testosterone responses

Knee Valgus (Valgus Collapse), Glute Medius Strengthening, Band Hip Abduction Exercises, and Ankle Dorsiflexion Drills

You’ll Never Squat Again: Why Physical Therapists and Doctors Should Learn Some Biomechanics

Effect of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance-training program on strength and hypertrophy in untrained subjects

Isolated vs. complex exercise in strengthening the rotator cuff muscle group

Influence of exercise order on upper body maximum and submaximal strength gains in trained men

Effects of varying attentional focus on health-related physical fitness performance

Strengthening and Neuromuscular Reeducation of the Gluteus Maximus in a Triathlete With Exercise-Associated Cramping of the Hamstrings

Muscles within muscles: a tensiomyographic and histochemical analysis of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles

988674_10152519878988475_1381011558_n

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Special thanks to Shane England, Rkc for throwing that last pic our way :-D )

Episode 7: A Real Head-Turner: Neck Packing & Joint Centration

Neck-packing has received much attention lately in physical therapy and strength coaching circles, as has the notion of joint centration. How does the evidence for neck-packing stack up? How can we determine optimal joint-centration? How stable is the core during real-world exercise? What limits the deadlift? And what’s the best neck position for grip strength?

In episode 7 of The Strength of Evidence Podcast, Jon and Bret tackle these questions and demonstrate how they go about forming an evidence-based opinion on the topic of neck packing.

Click Here to Download or Just to Listen

Click Here to Download on iTunes

franco deadlift

^^^ Definitely not neck-packing!

What do you think? After listening to the podcast and weighing the evidence, should we pack the neck, just keep it in neutral, or ignore the head and neck altogether and let the chips fall where they may? Join us in the discussion by giving us a “like” on our Facebook page!

As always, if you like the podcast, please click on THIS LINK, go to iTunes, click on “ratings and reviews,” and leave us some feedback and a rating! Then share with your friends and anyone that might like to hear the debate.

Links to the Articles and Topics Discussed in the Podcast 

4 Weightlifting Myths Destroyed - TNation article by Todd Bumgardner

Packing in the neck - Blogpost by Charlie Weingroff

Parachute use to prevent death and major trauma related to gravitational challenge: systematic review of randomised controlled trials -Absence of Evidence does not imply Evidence of Absence

Lamar Gant Deadlift: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=klXVGdlLx-I

Konstantin Konstantinovs Deadlift: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wh-ikyBAQr8

Phylogenetics - what does that even mean?

Articles Pertaining to Head-Neck Position & Strength

Grip Strength: Influence of Head-Neck Position in Normal Subjects

Effect of head-neck position on arm lifting strength

Effect of Head-Neck Position on Elbow Flexor Muscle 
Torque Production

Effects of head-neck rotation and kinesiotaping on the flexor muscles on dominant-hand grip strength

Articles Pertaining to Core Stability and Lumbar ROM

Normal functional range of motion of the lumbar spine during 15 activities of daily living

The lumbar and sacrum movement pattern the back squat exercise

Kettlebell swing, snatch, and bottoms-up carry: back and hip muscle activation, motion, and low back loads

Comparison of different strongman events – trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine motion, load, and stiffness

Comparison of different rowing exercises – trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine motion, load, and stiffness

A Quote from a Sports Science Legend:

Mel Siff quote on wearing belts (last paragraph)

Episode 6: The CrossFit Analysis (Guest Starring Jen Sinkler)

“Crossfit” gyms have made a huge impact in strength training in the last few years, but not everyone is embracing the trend. On one side of the argument, proponents claim “elite” training and results, while critics claim increased injuries and haphazard training without focus. Who’s got it right?

Jon and Bret welcome back special guest Jen Sinkler to discuss her experience in CrossFit workouts as the panel looks at the newest papers and studies to find out who has the facts in their favor!

Click Here to Download or Just to Listen

Click Here to Download on iTunes

What do you think? Is CrossFit a good approach to strength training and fitness, or is it just a good way to get hurtt? Join us in the discussion by giving us a “like” on our Facebook page!

As always, if you like the podcast, please click on THIS LINK, go to iTunes, click on “ratings and reviews,” and leave us some feedback and a rating! Then share this with your friends and anyone that might like to hear the debate.

Episode 5: The SoE Interview Guest Starring Jen Sinkler

How does the average fitness enthusiast get his or her information, and what is the quality of that information? In this episode, Jon and Bret welcome special guest Jen Sinkler to discuss her experience as a longtime fitness writer and editor and the former editorial director of fitness content for Experience Life magazine! How are articles written, experts chosen and topics decided on? Jen reveals all of the behind-the-scenes information that gets the information to us!

Jenny Sinkler

Jenny Sinkler

Click Here to Download or Just to Listen

Click Here to Download on iTunes

Join us in the discussion by giving us a “like” on our Facebook page!

Episode 4: The Paleo Diet (Guest Starring Dr. Cassandra Forsythe-Pribanic)

Get ready for what is sure to be our most controversial show yet! In this episode, Jon and Bret welcome special guest Dr. Cassandra Forsythe-Pribanic to weigh in on The Paleo Diet and its recent review in US News & World Report’s “Best Diets” issue. Does the evidence support Paleo’s claims, or is it better left to extinction?

http://www.dreamstime.com/-image25111762

Before you listen to the podcast, take a look through the two documents that we evaluated in our discussion: the US News report on The Paleo Diet, and the rebuttal at Robb Wolf’s blog:

US News & World Report: Paleo

Rebuttal: Robb Wolf’s Blog

We review the claims and evidence provided by both sides to find out who has the science to back up the claims!

Click Here to Download or Just to Listen

Click Here to Download on iTunes

What do you think? Is Paleo right, or is it more theory vs. fact? Join us in the discussion by giving us a “like” on our Facebook page!

As always, if you like the podcast, please click on THIS LINK, go to iTunes, click on “ratings and reviews,” and leave us some feedback and a rating! Then share this with your friends and anyone that might like to hear the debate.

If you’re unaware of The Paleo Diet or want to learn more about it, THIS Wikipedia link is worth checking out.

The-Paleo-Diet

 

Episode 3.5 – Special Analysis of “Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults”

Before we get started, we have a favor to ask. For those of you who like the podcast, please click on THIS LINK, go to iTunes, click on “ratings and reviews,” and give the podcast a rating or a review (or both). Thanks!

Welcome to our first “Special Analysis” episode, where Bret and Jonathan take a detailed look at new and specific research making waves in health & fitness! Unlike a regular episode, the “Special Analysis” breaks down a single paper to give you an “inside look” at how research methodologies and design can impact the quality and usefulness of a paper. On this first episode, the guys take a critical look at “Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults,” and break down the strengths, weaknesses and overall impact of this new and exciting paper! Along with Bret and Jon, friends of the show Alan Aragon and Brad Schoenfeld also give their impressions in a special correspondence! This one is not to be missed.

Click Here to Download or Just to Listen

Click Here to Download on iTunes

Here are some show notes, if you can understand them:

* Prior studies inconclusive

66 RT, 73 AT, 57 A+RT

18-70 years old, sedentary, overweight or moderately obese, males and females

8 months long

RT – 3X/wk, 3 sets/day, 8-12 reps/set

AT – around 12 miles/wk @ 65-80% peak VO2Max (treadmill, elliptical, cycling)

A+RT – Both

Ramped up

RT – 1 set weeks 1-2, 2 sets weeks 3-4, 3 sets week 5, targeted all major muscle groups, weights increased 5 lbs when 12 reps with proper form on all 3 sets was reached during 2 consecutive sessions, 2.53 sessions/week

AT – 2.99 sessions/week

Both – 2.46 RT sessions/week, 2.88 AT sessions/week

2010 calories/day all 3 groups

Results – See Table

 

Episode 3: Olympic Weightlifting vs. Powerlifting

It doesn’t take long before you’ll come across a claim one way or another when it comes to Olympic Weightlifting or Powerlifting being superior for athletic performance and strength: each “side” has their supporters, and each side makes claims to the evidence. But who’s “right?” On this episode, Jon and Bret get together to discuss the evidence and to find the facts through the noise, and Bret discusses a new study looking at training frequency in a way that you’ve probably never considered before. The results from both discussions just might surprise you! Sacred Cows will be running for the hills, guaranteed.

Click Here to Download or Just to Listen

Click here to subscribe to the show and download directly from iTunes!

  • Intro and listener questions 0:00 – 6:48
  • New study of the month 6:49 – 13:33
  • Review research 13:34 – 1:03:30
  • Discussion (Commonalities & Differences, Advantages/Disadvantages, Different Sports/Positions/Actions, etc.) 1:03:31 – 1:23:22
  • Conclusions (Debates are fun…but we don’t really have to choose, we can do both, combined training is always best, but Oly lifting has the advantage for vertical jump)1:23:23 – 1:25:25

Show Notes: Study of the Month

Comparison of muscle hypertrophy following 6-month of continuous and periodic strength training

  • 14 young males
  • 2 groups – continuous training, periodic training
  • Both groups performed 3 x 10 bench press at 75% of 1RM (2-3 min rest), three days/week
  • Continuous group trained 24 weeks in a row
  • Periodic group trained 6 weeks on, 6 weeks off (for 3 cycles)
  • Training loads reassessed every 3 weeks
  • Periodic group performed 25% fewer total training sessions and 33.5% less total training volume
  • Total improvement in muscle cross-sectional area of the triceps brachii and pectoralis major and in 1RM strength were similar between the continuous and periodic training groups
  • Periodic group would lose strength over detraining period but regain it quickly
  • 3 wk detraining periods don’t interfere with strength and hypertrophy over the long-haul

Show Notes: Olympic and Power Lifting Studies *YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THE FULL PAPERS FOR EACH OF THESE 6 STUDIES

Comparison of Olympic vs. Traditional Power Lifting Training Programs in Football Players

  • 20 male college football players
  • 15 weeks, 4W/wk
  • Oly group, PL group
  • Phase 1 – same protocol (5 wks)
  • Phase 2 and 3 – specific protocol (10 wks)
  • Phase 3 included sprint and agility work
  • Both groups did squats and bench press
  • Powerlifting group increased more on bench, vertical jump power, and t-drill
  • Oly group increased more on squats, vertical jump height, and 40yd
  • Results due to programming freedom by authors?
  • Were these “typical” Oly and PL programs?

Effect of Olympic and Traditional Resistance Training on Vertical Jump Improvement in High School Boys

  • 27 male high school athletes
  • 12 weeks, 3x/wk
  • Oly group, PL group
  • 4 weeks – general training, 8 weeks – specific training
  • Both groups did many of the same lifts
  • Oly group did better on vertical jumps, squats, and power cleans
  • Results due to programming freedom by authors?
  • Were these “typical” Oly and PL programs?

Muscle Fiber Characteristics of Competitive Power Lifters

  • 5 National Level PL’ers with 10yrs experience, and 5 active male controls
  • Both groups around 5’10”ish, controls weigh 85kgs (187lbs), PL’ers weigh 102kgs (224lbs)
  • Controls – 22% bf, PL’ers – 17% bf
  • Controls jump 48cm (19in) with 4,186W of power, PL’ers jump 59cm (23in) with 5,438W of power
  • PL’ers on average bench 171kg (377lbs), squat 288kg (635lbs), and dl 284kg (626lbs)
  • PL’ers produce more force, power, relative force, and relative power on the squat at all speeds
  • PL’ers have more IIa and less IIb fibers and MHC content (shift)
  • Similar type I fibers and areas, smaller type IIb fibers in PL’ers
  • Type IIa fibers smaller in PL’ers???

Muscle Fiber Characteristics and Performance Correlates of Male Olympic-Style Weightlifters

  • 6 Weightlifters with 11 yrs experience, 7 controls (exercise science students)
  • WL’ers – 5’8”ish and 96kgs (211 lbs), controls – 5’10”ish and 77kgs (170lbs)
  • WL’ers – 20%bf, controls 17%bf
  • WL’ers – 123kg snatch (271lbs), 159kg clean & jerk (350lbs), jump 61cm (24in) with 5,377W of power
  • WL’ers train 5 sessions/wk for around 2 hrs
  • WL’ers have same amount of type I fibers, more type IIa, and less type IIb than controls
  • WL’ers have bigger type I and type IIa fibers and smaller type IIb fibers (and MHC content)

A Review of Power Output Studies of Olympic and Powerlifting: Methodology, Performance Prediction, and Evaluation Tests

  • Review Paper
  • Total average power in clean – 4191W, relative average power is 33.5W/kg
  • Total average power in second pull of clean – 6981W, relative is 55.8W/kg
  • Snatch power is similar to clean
  • Total power for jerk is 4570W
  • Deadlift 1275 (relative 12.7W/kg)
  • Squat power is half that of clean or snatch
  • Bench press is 343W (relative 4.6W/kg)
  • Average power for entire clean or snatch for elite males is 34.1W/Kg, for females it’s 21.8W/kg (63% of men)
  • For second pull, 52.6W/kg for men and 39.2W/kg for women (74%)
  • Squats and deads – 12W/kg for elite, 4W/kg for bench (women 60-70% of that)
  • Max power in squats, deads, bench estimated to be at around 80% of 1RM *recent research doesn’t support this
  • 75W/kg for vertical jumps with high jumpers
  • Interval time influences results

Explosive Exercises in Sports Training: A Critical Review

  • Review
  • Joint torque and muscle activation diminishes dramatically with explosive submaximal exercises that require deceleration (curls, bench)
  • Cadence on bench and squat doesn’t lead to different effects (3 studies they mentioned)
  • Slow better than fast for sprint kayaking, fast better than slow for speed maintenance in kayaking
  • No differences for slow or fast hip/knee flex/ext training for squats, sprint acceleration, or hip ext power.
  • Strength training equally as effective as plyos for VJ and power
  • “Contrarian” – needed in science
  • Outdated?

Episode 2: To Squat or Not to Squat

Episode two is in the books! On this episode, Jon and Bret get together to discuss new studies on neuromuscular differences between males and females, new research analyzing Usain Bolt’s sprint biomechanics, as well as our critical analysis of the claim “stop squatting!”

Click Here to Download or Just to Listen

Click here to subscribe to the show and download directly from iTunes!

Here are the Show Notes and Times:

  • Intro - 0:00 – 4:32
  • Listener feedback – 4:32 – 14:12
  • Jon study of the week – 14:12 – 20:55
  • Bret study of the week – 20:55 – 32:32
  • Topic of the week: To Squat or Not to Squat – 32:32 – 40:45
  • 3 Primary Studies of Interest – 40:45 – 50:51
  • How does form break down in a squat, and what is the limiting transducer? – 50:51 – 1:01:32
  • How does form break down in a RFESS, and what is the limiting transducer? 1:01:32 – 1:04:42
  • Which is therefore more “inherently dangerous?” – 1:04:42 – 1:14:26
  • Is there a bilateral deficit in the squat pattern? 1:14:26 – 1:20:45
  • Which exercise places more loading on the joints and muscles? – 1:20:45 – 1:23:37
  • Which exercise leads to greater performance effects? 1:23:37 – 1:24:54
  • What is Boyle’s take and what factors influence his opinion? 1:24:54 –  1:30:05
  • Does this then apply to all trainers/coaches/lifters? – 1:30:05 – 1:35:42
  • Could anything be done to circumvent Boyle’s issues with the squat? – 1:35:42 – 1:40:12
  • Conclusions, impressions, and future research that could be conducted to help settle this discussion? 1:40:12 – 1:47:37
  • Discussion for next episode – 1:47:37 – 1:50:17

Here are the Notes to the 3 Primary Studies Mentioned

McCurdy et al. (2005). The effects of short-term unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training on measures of strength and power. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 19(1)9-15.

  • 23 men and 16 women, age 18-24, had basic weight training experience, hadn’t trained lower body in at least a year
  • 8 weeks, 2 days/wk
  • Bilateral group: squats, front squats, bilateral plyos (pogo jumps, countermovement vertical jumps)
  • Unilateral group: RFESS, lunges, step ups, unilateral plyos
  • No upper body or core training
  • Progressed from 3 sets of 15 at 50% of predicted 1RM to 6 sets of 5 at 87%
  • Interesting note: Another study showed that lunge involves 75% loading on front leg
  • Authors predicted unilateral would transfer well to bilateral but not vice versa; they were wrong
  • Not much difference in bilateral and unilateral gains, vertical jump, and power
  • Unilateral group gained more on unilateral vertical jump

McCurdy et al. (2010). Comparison of lower extremity EMG between the 2-leg squat and modified single-leg squat in female athletes. Journal of Sports Rehabilitation. 19, 57-70.

  • 11 female athletes
  • 85% of 3RM used as resistance for squat and RFESS (12” box, on toes)
  • Interesting note: 85% of system loading was on front leg
  • RFESS – around 48% more mean glute med and 24% more peak glute med
  • RFESS – around 48% more mean hammy and 72% more peak hammy (biceps femoris)
  • RFESS – around 48% less mean quad and 29% less peak quad (rectus femoris)

Jones et al. (2012). Effects of unilateral and bilateral lower-body heavy resistance exercise on muscle activity and testosterone responses. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 26(4)1094-10.

  • 10 male athletes
  • 10RM loads (around 255 lbs for squat and 110 lbs for RFESS)
  • RFESS – slightly less vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and erector spinae, slightly more glute max
  • Workload during 4 sets of RFESS was 42% of that of the squat (64% if bodymass is considered)
  • Testosterone output higher following RFESS at 6 time-points

Here are the Links to Jon’s Study of the Week and Bret’s Study of the Week:

Spinal Motor Control Differences Between the Sexes

Spring Mass Characteristics of the Fastest Men on Earth

Episode 1: Evidence 101

Hi Folks!

Welcome to episode #1 of The Strength of Evidence Podcast. Our first episode lays the ground-work for future episodes, as we discuss important topics such as the scientific method, what it means to be “evidence-based,” and logical fallacies. We will draw from these methodologies as we hash out topics pertaining to strength, conditioning, and rehabilitation in subsequent podcasts. Here is the link to the mp3:

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD OR JUST LISTEN

Here are the show notes:

Purpose of the Podcast

  • Help teach critical thinking skills
  • Evaluate the evidence pertaining to various topics in fitness

About Us

  • About Jon
  • About Bret

What is Evidence-Based Decision Making?

“A systematic approach to the training of athletes and clients based on the current best evidence from peer-reviewed research and professional reasoning.” – English et al., SCJ, June 2012

  1. Develop a question
  2. Find evidence
  3. Evaluate the evidence
  4. Incorporate the evidence into practice
  5. Reevaluate the evidence

The Hierarchy of Knowledge

Portney & Watkins 2007

  1. The Scientific Method
  2. Logical Reasoning
  3. Trial and Error
  4. Authority
  5. Tradition

Logical Fallacies

  1. Ad Hominem
  2. Appeal to Authority
  3. Appeal to Fear
  4. Strawman
  5. Cherrypicking
  6. Hasty Generalization
  7. Red Herring
  8. Proof by Verbosity
  9. Nirvana Fallacy
  10. Bandwagon
  11. Anecdotal
  12. Confusing Correlation with Causation

Placebo Effect

“The beneficial effect in a patient following a particular treatment that arises from the patient’s expectations concerning the treatment rather than from the treatment itself.”

Pitfalls of Research

  1. Overgeneralization
  2. Limitations
  3. Methodology
  4. Sample Size
  5. Experimenter Effects
  6. Fudging/Fraud
  7. Confirmation Bias

Good Video: Science for Smart People

Last, we leave you with a video by Tom Naughton, where he discusses many similar topics that we did in our podcast. We think you’ll really enjoy it as he injects a good deal of humor into the presentation.

That’s all for episode #1. In episode #2, Jon and Bret will be discussing “To Squat or Not to Squat;” a popular debate in certain Strength & Conditioning circles.